IPA(8)                                                                  IPA(8)

       ipa -- utility for accounting

       ipa -h|v

       ipa [-c dir] [-u user] [-g group] [-p pid_file] -k signal

       ipa [-c dir] [-u user] [-g group] [-f conf_file] -t [-t]

       ipa [-d] [-c dir] [-u user] [-g group] [-f conf_file] [-p pid_file]
           [-o log_file] [-i log_ident]

       ipa -x [-c dir] [-u user] [-g group] [-f conf_file]
           [-r rule [-l limit [-s sublimit]|-t threshold]]
           section [subsection]

       IPA  is the ``Pluggable Accounting System''.  The IPA distribution con-
       sists of three utilities for general purpose  accounting:  ipa,  ipactl
       and  ipastat.   Each  of these utilities is described on its own manual

       ipa is an utility for accounting.  The ipa.conf(5)  manual  page  gives
       the  complete  description  how  to configure ipa and describes all its

       ipa periodically takes  statistics  from  IPA  accounting  modules  and
       passes this statistics to IPA database modules according to settings in
       the ipa.conf(5) configuration file.  It  is  possible  to  use  several
       accounting systems and databases at once.

       Available options are:

       -c dir Set  the  directory  ipa  should chroot(2) into immediately, the
              directory should be  given  with  absolute  path.   The  working
              directory is not changed.

       -d     Do not run in the background.  If log-file is used, then all log
              messages are sent to standard error output (stderr) as well.  If
              syslog  is  used, then log messages are copied to stderr only on
              some systems.  This option is useful for debugging.

       -f conf_file
              Use the given configuration file instead of  using  the  default
              configuration  file, the configuration file name should be given
              with absolute pathname.

       -i log_ident
              Use the given log-ident (the default log-ident is ``ipa'').

       -k signal
              Send a signal to the running copy of ipa.  Valid arguments  are:
              shutdown  (send  a  SIGTERM  signal), reconfigure (send a SIGHUP
              signal), kill (send a SIGKILL signal), test (test  whether  PID-
              file is locked, no signal is sent).  The PID of the running copy
              is taken as the PID of the process which has the exclusive  lock
              on  a  PID-file.   No  signal  will be sent if a PID-file is not
              exclusively locked.

       -o log_file
              Write log messages to the given log-file instead of  using  sys-
              log.   This  file can be safely removed while ipa is running, it
              will be recreated.  This feature helps to make logs rotating.

       -p pid_file
              Use the given PID-file instead of using default PID-file.   This
              option allows to start some copies of ipa at once.

       -t     Parse the configuration file, output its content and exit.  This
              option allows to check whether ipa and  IPA  modules  understand
              your  configuration  file(s).  Two -tt switches enable so called
              ``mimic real configuration regime''.  ipa will set  all  default
              values  and  will  apply  settings from rulepat sections to rule
              sections in this regime.

       -u user
              Change the UID of the running copy of ipa  to  the  given  user.
              The given value may be either a user name or the UID.  If the -g
              option is not given, then the GID will be the primary  group  of
              the given user, all supplementary user's groups are set as well.

       -g group
              Change the GID of the running copy of ipa to  the  given  group.
              The  given  value  may  be either a group name or the GID.  This
              option also changes all supplementary user's groups.

       -x     Run commands from the given section (subsection) and  exit.   It
              is  impossible to run commands from any section from autorule or
              rulepat sections.  See the ipa.conf(5) manual page for  informa-
              tion  about  sections and subsections names, rules, limits, sub-
              limits and thresholds.

       -h     Print the help message about available options and exit.

       -v     Show the version number, some settings, what is  supported  from
              ipa.conf(5) and exit.

       When  ipa starts it acquires the exclusive lock on its PID-file to pre-
       vent multiple copies of itself from running and stores its PID in  this
       file.  This saved PID is not used by ipa in any way.

       A SIGTERM signal causes the shutdowning of the ipa running copy.  It is
       the only one correct way to shutdown it.  If the -d switch is given  in
       the  command  line, then a SIGINT signal is handled as a SIGTERM signal
       (a SIGINT signal usually is sent to a foreground process when one types
       Control-C sequence).

       A  SIGHUP signal tells ipa to reread its configuration file (default or
       one given in the command line when ipa was run).  If ipa  cannot  parse
       the  configuration  file,  then  it exits.  Read the ipa.conf(5) manual
       page for more information why it is better in some cases  to  reread  a
       configuration instead of stopping and running ipa.

       Do  not send a SIGKILL signal to the running copy of ipa, use this sig-
       nal only if ipa does not work properly and does  not  catch  a  SIGTERM
       signal  (or  a  SIGINT  signal  if it is run in the foreground regime).
       This note is here just because the -k option accepts the kill argument.

       Note  that  ipa  caught the above mentioned signals only if it does not
       currently execute some function from used IPA modules or does not  runs
       commands  in  a synchronous regime.  Handling of other signals is unde-

       If ipa starts in the background, then it redirects the  standard  input
       (stdin) to /dev/null (see output of the ``ipa -v'' command for the real
       path), output to the standard output (stdout) and  the  standard  error
       output  (stderr)  is redirected to internal pipe(2)s and asynchronously
       is logged with *STDOUT and *STDERR prefixes respectively.   Write  ends
       of each pipes are set in the non-blockable regime.  Since a pipe(2) has
       a limited size of its buffer, then some information sent to  stdout  or
       stderr  can  be lost.  Anyway this is better than simply discard output
       to stdout and stderr.

       If ipa starts in the foreground, then stdin and stderr works  as  usual
       (stderr is used for outputting log messages).

       ipa does not sent any message to stdout and stderr (when it runs in the
       background), but library functions or run commands can send messages to
       stdout and stderr.

       ipa  exits  with a return code 0 on success, and with a non-zero return
       code if any error occurred.  By default ipa is run  in  the  background
       and  you should not rely upon its return code (it is just a return code
       of a original process), it is better to look at its log-file.   If  you
       need  to  control a return code, then run ipa in foreground (use the -d


       (run ipa with the -h switch and check default paths)

       ipactl(8), ipastat(8), ipa.conf(5), ipastat.conf(5), ipa_mod(3)

       Andrey Simonenko <simon@comsys.ntu-kpi.kiev.ua>

       If you find any, please send email me.

                                April 16, 2005                          IPA(8)